Transient kinetic studies of the antiviral Drosophila Dicer-2 reveal roles of ATP in self•nonself discrimination

Raushan K Singh, McKenzie Jonely, Evan Leslie, Nick A Rejali, Rodrigo Noriega, Brenda L Bass
2021 eLife  
Some RIG-I-like receptors discriminate viral and cellular dsRNA by their termini, and Drosophila melanogaster Dicer-2 (dmDcr-2) differentially processes dsRNA with blunt or 2 nucleotide 3'-overhanging termini. We investigated the transient kinetic mechanism of the dmDcr-2 reaction using a rapid reaction stopped-flow technique and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Indeed, we found that ATP binding to dmDcr-2's helicase domain impacts association and dissociation kinetics of dsRNA in a
more » ... ini-dependent manner, revealing termini-dependent discrimination of dsRNA on a biologically-relevant time-scale (seconds). ATP hydrolysis promotes transient unwinding of dsRNA termini followed by slow rewinding, and directional translocation of the enzyme to the cleavage site. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy reveals a nucleotide-dependent modulation in conformational fluctuations (nanoseconds) of the helicase and Platform•PAZ domains that is correlated with termini-dependent dsRNA cleavage. Our study offers a kinetic framework for comparison to other Dicers, as well as all members of the RIG-I- like receptors involved in innate immunity.
doi:10.7554/elife.65810 fatcat:iwvemitx65culki34onli5rajq