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An approach for modelling and simulating the architectural development of apple trees is presented. The approach is based on using an L-systems framework to integrate a Markov model of terminal bud fate and a number of hidden semi-Markov models of axial bud fate. Results show that these models are able to represent the branching zones observed in apple trees at node scale, simulate the sequences of annual growth units found along branches, and capture important aspects of the bearing pattern.doi:10.17660/actahortic.2006.707.7 fatcat:66pr3waefvcdbc7jiojwgkw6mm