Noble metal nanoparticles in biosensors: recent studies and applications

Hedieh Malekzad, Parham Sahandi Zangabad, Hamed Mirshekari, Mahdi Karimi, Michael R. Hamblin
2017 Nanotechnology Reviews  
AbstractThe aim of this review is to cover advances in noble metal nanoparticle (MNP)-based biosensors and to outline the principles and main functions of MNPs in different classes of biosensors according to the transduction methods employed. The important biorecognition elements are enzymes, antibodies, aptamers, DNA sequences, and whole cells. The main readouts are electrochemical (amperometric and voltametric), optical (surface plasmon resonance, colorimetric, chemiluminescence,
more » ... hemical, etc.) and piezoelectric. MNPs have received attention for applications in biosensing due to their fascinating properties. These properties include a large surface area that enhances biorecognizers and receptor immobilization, good ability for reaction catalysis and electron transfer, and good biocompatibility. MNPs can be used alone and in combination with other classes of nanostructures. MNP-based sensors can lead to significant signal amplification, higher sensitivity, and great improvements in the detection and quantification of biomolecules and different ions. Some recent examples of biomolecular sensors using MNPs are given, and the effects of structure, shape, and other physical properties of noble MNPs and nanohybrids in biosensor performance are discussed.
doi:10.1515/ntrev-2016-0014 pmid:29335674 pmcid:PMC5766271 fatcat:t5crw56x2fgblobn3srnd65w4a