From one solution of a 3-satisfiability formula to a solution cluster: Frozen variables and entropy

Kang Li, Hui Ma, Haijun Zhou
2009 Physical Review E  
A solution to a 3-satisfiability (3-SAT) formula can be expanded into a cluster, all other solutions of which are reachable from this one through a sequence of single-spin flips. Some variables in the solution cluster are frozen to the same spin values by one of two different mechanisms: frozen-core formation and long-range frustrations. While frozen cores are identified by a local whitening algorithm, long-range frustrations are very difficult to trace, and they make an entropic
more » ... ion (BP) algorithm fail to converge. For BP to reach a fixed point the spin values of a tiny fraction of variables (chosen according to the whitening algorithm) are externally fixed during the iteration. From the calculated entropy values, we infer that, for a large random 3-SAT formula with constraint density close to the satisfiability threshold, the solutions obtained by the survey-propagation or the walksat algorithm belong neither to the most dominating clusters of the formula nor to the most abundant clusters. This work indicates that a single solution cluster of a random 3-SAT formula may have further community structures.
doi:10.1103/physreve.79.031102 pmid:19391897 fatcat:vva7sv4a5jdyhikxzz7fzztuve