The role of 4th generation district heating (4GDH) in a highly electrified hydropower dominated energy system
District heating is considered an important component in a future highly renewable European energy system. With the turn towards developing 4th generation district heating (4GDH), the integral role of district heating in fully renewable energy systems is emphasized further. Norway is a country that is expected to play a significant role in the transition of the European energy system due to its high shares of flexible hydropower in the electricity sector. At the same time, the country is moving
... e country is moving towards electrification in all sectors and higher shares of variable renewable electricity generation, potentially reducing the flexibility of the system. District heating has played a minor role in Norway but could potentially decrease the need for electric capacity expansion and increase the flexibility of the system. In this paper we investigate the role of 4GDH in a highly electrified future Norwegian energy system. A highly electrified scenario for the Norwegian energy system is constructed based on a step-by-step approach, implementing measures towards electrification and expansion of renewable electricity generation. Then, a 4GDH scenario is constructed for the purpose of analysing the role of 4GDH. EnergyPLAN is used for simulation. Results show that an expansion of 4GDH will increase the total system efficiency of the Norwegian energy system due to the introduction of heat savings, more efficient heating solutions and low-temperature excess heat. However, the flexibility provided from increased heat storage capacity is limited.