Community-Acquired Respiratory Viruses in Transplant Patients: Diversity, Impact, Unmet Clinical Needs

Michael G. Ison, Hans H. Hirsch
2019 Clinical Microbiology Reviews  
SUMMARY Patients undergoing solid-organ transplantation (SOT) or allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are at increased risk for infectious complications. Community-acquired respiratory viruses (CARVs) pose a particular challenge due to the frequent exposure pre-, peri-, and posttransplantation. Although influenza A and B viruses have a top priority regarding prevention and treatment, recent molecular diagnostic tests detecting an array of other CARVs in real time have
more » ... expanded our knowledge about the epidemiology, diversity, and impact of CARV infections in the general population and in allogeneic HCT and SOT patients. These data have demonstrated that non-influenza CARVs independently contribute to morbidity and mortality of transplant patients. However, effective vaccination and antiviral treatment is only emerging for non-influenza CARVs, placing emphasis on infection control and supportive measures. Here, we review the current knowledge about CARVs in SOT and allogeneic HCT patients to better define the magnitude of this unmet clinical need and to discuss some of the lessons learned from human influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenzavirus, rhinovirus, coronavirus, adenovirus, and bocavirus regarding diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.
doi:10.1128/cmr.00042-19 pmid:31511250 fatcat:ggi6iplx3zcpziuc77yc6friz4