Ю.А. Ишмуратова, И.В. Блинникова
The most important feature of the professional activity of chemists is the knowledge of the chemical language at three levels of chemical knowledge (macro-, micro-, symbolic). The aim of this study is to determine the differences between professionals and students in the field of chemistry in solving problems containing different levels of chemical knowledge. Problems were developed that include three-dimensional images of molecules of substances (micro level), as well as their formula and text
more » ... ir formula and text designation (symbolic level). The study involved 42 chemists aged 17 to 55 years: 21 people - students of chemical specialties; 21 people are professional chemists who have been working in the specialty for more than 10 years. Chemistry professionals have been found to solve problems faster and with fewer mistakes. It is easier for professionals to make the transition between levels of chemical knowledge (namely: between molecular and symbolic). For professionals, there are no fundamental differences in finding the correct answer among formulas or among verbal designations. Moreover, professionals were somewhat better at solving problems when the answers were presented in verbal form. Analysis of the experts' answers made it possible to find out that this is connected with the construction of mental representations, which allow solving the assigned tasks faster and more efficiently. In turn, the transition between the two levels of chemical knowledge was very difficult for students. Students performed much worse on those types of problems in which the answer options were written in the form of verbal designations. At the same time, students solved problems significantly better and faster if the answers were presented in the form of formulas. An oral interview made it possible to find out that the strategy of counting atoms in a molecule provides an advantage in solving this type of problem. The study made it possible to reveal the peculiarities of solving representative problems at different levels of the formation of prof [...]
doi:10.25629/hc.2021.04.17 fatcat:u2pelk7w7nctvmxb4t65ur5rau