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The increasing concerns of air pollution and energy usage led to the electrification of the vehicle powertrain system in recent years. On the other hand, internal combustion engines were the dominant vehicle power source for more than a century, and they will continue to be used in most vehicles for decades to come; thus, it is necessary to employ advanced technologies to replace traditional mechanical systems with mechatronic systems to meet the ever-increasing demand of continuously improvingdoi:10.3390/app10041216 fatcat:saxgpl7kizc67dzx2lznnffbju