A One-Dimensional Model of Turbulent Flow Through 'Urban' Canopies: Updates Based on Large-Eddy Simulation
<p><strong>Abstract.</strong> In mesoscale climate models, urban canopy flow is typically parameterized in terms of the horizontally-averaged (1-D) flow and scalar transport, and these parameterizations can be informed by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of the urban climate at the microscale. Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Simulation (RANS) models have been previously employed to derive vertical profiles of turbulent length scale and drag coefficient for such parameterization.
... parameterization. However, there is substantial evidence that RANS models fall short in accurately representing turbulent flow fields in the urban roughness sublayer. When compared with more accurate flow modeling such as Large Eddy Simulations (LES), we observed that vertical profiles of turbulent kinetic energy and associated turbulent length scales obtained from RANS models are substantially smaller specifically in the urban canopy. Accordingly, using LES results, we revisited the urban canopy parameterizations employed in the one-dimensional model of turbulent flow through urban areas, and updated the parameterization of turbulent length scale and drag coefficient. Additionally, we included the parameterization of the dispersive stress, previously neglected in the 1-D column model. For this objective, the PArallelized Large-Eddy Simulation Model (PALM) is used and a series of simulations in an idealized urban configuration with aligned and staggered arrays are considered. The plan area density is varied from 0.0625 to 0.44 to span a wide range of urban density (from sparsely developed to compact midrise neighborhoods, respectively). To ensure the accuracy of the simulation results, we rigorously evaluated the PALM results by comparing the vertical profiles of turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stresses with wind tunnel measurements, as well as other available LES and DNS studies. After implementing the updated drag coefficients and turbulent length scales in the 1-D model of urban canopy flow, we evaluated the results by a) testing the 1-D model against the original LES results, and demonstrating the differences in predictions between new (derived from LES) and old (derived from RANS) versions of the 1-D model, and b) testing the 1-D model against LES results for a test-case with realistic geometries. Results suggest a more accurate prediction of vertical turbulent exchange in urban canopies, which can consequently lead to an improved prediction of urban heat and pollutant dispersion at the mesoscale.</p>