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Information Retrieval (IR) deals with uncertainty and vagueness in in-formation systems. Uncertainty is caused by the problem of representing the semantics of text and other media, which cannot be done in a perfect way. On the other hands, information needs to be answered by IR systems are often vague and cannot be specified precisely, thus leading to iterative query formu-lation. [...]doi:10.5281/zenodo.4136995 fatcat:ufop5acffbaczf2po7c5hntsti