Dynamic Microwave Imaging of the Cardiovascular System Using Ultra-Wideband Radar-on-Chip Devices

Timo Lauteslager, Mathias Tmmer, Tor Sverre Lande, Timothy G Constandinou
Microwave imaging has been investigated for medical applications such as stroke and breast imaging. Current systems typically rely on bench-top equipment to scan at a variety of antenna positions. For dynamic imaging of moving structures, such as the cardiovascular system, much higher imaging speeds are required than what has thus far been reported. Recent innovations in radar-on-chip technology allow for simultaneous high speed data collection at multiple antenna positions at a fraction of the
more » ... cost of conventional microwave equipment, in a small and potentially portable system. The objective of the current work is to provide proof of concept of dynamic microwave imaging in the body, using radar-on-chip technology. Arrays of body-coupled antennas were used with nine simultaneously operated coherent ultra-wideband radar chips. Data were collected from the chest and thigh of a volunteer, with the objective of imaging the femoral artery and beating heart. In addition, data were collected from a phantom to validate system performance. Video data were constructed using beamforming. The location of the femoral artery could successfully be resolved, and a distinct arterial pulse wave was discernable. Cardiac activity was imaged at locations corresponding to the heart, but image quality was insufficient to identify individual anatomical structures. Static and differential imaging of the femur bone proved unsuccessful. Using radar chip technology and an imaging approach, cardiovascular activity was detected in the body, demonstrating first steps towards biomedical dynamic microwave imaging. The current portable and modular system design was found unsuitable for static in-body imaging. This first proof of concept demonstrates that radar-on-chip could enable cardiovascular imaging in a low-cost, small and portable system. Such a system could make medical imaging more accessible, particularly in ambulatory or long-term monitoring settings.
doi:10.1109/tbme.2022.3158251 pmid:35271437 fatcat:ld7fqmquszbbtgjrzwrlxlmkbe