Properties of quasi-periodic pulsations in solar flares from a single active region
Astronomy and Astrophysics
We investigate the properties of a set of solar flares originating from a single active region (AR) that exhibit QPPs, and look for signs of the QPP periods relating to AR properties. The AR studied, best known as NOAA 12192, was unusually long-lived and produced 181 flares. Data from the GOES, EVE, Fermi, Vernov and NoRH observatories were used to determine if QPPs were present in the flares. For the soft X-ray GOES and EVE data, the time derivative of the signal was used. Power spectra of the
... ower spectra of the time series data (without any form of detrending) were inspected, and flares with a peak above the 95% confidence level in the spectrum were labelled as having candidate QPPs. The confidence levels were determined taking account of uncertainties and the possible presence of red noise. AR properties were determined using HMI line of sight magnetograms. A total of 37 flares (20% of the sample) show good evidence of having QPPs, and some of the pulsations can be seen in data from multiple instruments and in different wavebands. The QPP periods show a weak correlation with the flare amplitude and duration, but this may be due to an observational bias. A stronger correlation was found between the QPP period and duration of the QPP signal, which can be partially but not entirely explained by observational constraints. No correlations were found with the AR area, bipole separation, or average magnetic field strength. The fact that a substantial fraction of the flare sample showed evidence of QPPs using a strict detection method with minimal processing of the data demonstrates that these QPPs are a real phenomenon, which cannot be explained by the presence of red noise or the superposition of multiple unrelated flares. The lack of correlation between the QPP periods and AR properties implies that the small-scale structure of the AR is important, and/or that different QPP mechanisms act in different cases.