A G3-Continuous Extend Procedure for Path Planning of Mobile Robots with Limited Motion Curvature and State Constraints
Provably correct and computationally efficient path planning in the presence of various constraints is essential for autonomous driving and agile maneuvering of mobile robots. In this paper, we consider the planning of G 3-continuous planar paths with continuous and limited curvature in a motion environment that is bounded and contains obstacles modeled by a set of (non-convex) polygons. In practice, the curvature constraints often arise from mechanical limitations for the robot, such as
... steering and articulation angles in wheeled robots, or aerodynamic constraints in unmanned aerial vehicles. To solve the planning problem under those stringent constraints, we improve upon known path primitives, such as Reeds–Shepp (RS) and CC-steer (curvature-continuous) paths. Given the initial and final robot configuration, we developed extend-procedure computing paths that can approximate RS paths with arbitrary precision, but guaranteeing G 3-continuity. We show that satisfaction of all stated path constraints is guaranteed and, contrary to many other methods known from the literature, the method of checking for collisions between the planned path and obstacles is given by a closed-form analytic expression. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our approach is not conservative, i.e., it allows for precise maneuvers in tight environments under the assumption of a rectangular robot footprint. The presented extend procedure can be integrated into various motion-planning algorithms available in the literature. In particular, we utilized the Rapidly exploring Random Trees (RRT*) algorithm in conjunction with our extend procedure to demonstrate its feasibility in motion environments of nontrivial complexity and low computational cost in comparison to a G 3-continuous extend procedure based on η 3-splines.