Metabolomic Profile of Umbilical Cord Blood Plasma from Early and Late Intrauterine Growth Restricted (IUGR) Neonates with and without Signs of Brain Vasodilation
Objectives: To characterize via NMR spectroscopy the full spectrum of metabolic changes in umbilical vein blood plasma of newborns diagnosed with different clinical forms of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Methods: 23 early IUGR cases and matched 23 adequate-for-gestational-age (AGA) controls and 56 late IUGR cases with 56 matched AGAs were included in this study. Early IUGR was defined as a birth weight <10 th centile, abnormal umbilical artery (UA) Doppler and delivery <35 weeks. Late
... IUGR was defined as a birth weight <10 th centile with normal UA Doppler and delivery >35 weeks. This group was subdivided in 18 vasodilated (VD) and 38 non-VD late IUGR fetuses. All AGA patients had a birth weight >10 th centile. 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics of the blood samples collected from the umbilical vein at delivery was obtained. Multivariate statistical analysis identified several metabolites that allowed the discrimination between the different IUGR subgroups, and their comparative levels were quantified from the NMR data. Results: The NMR-based analysis showed increased unsaturated lipids and VLDL levels in both early and late IUGR samples, decreased glucose and increased acetone levels in early IUGR. Non-significant trends for decreased glucose and increased acetone levels were present in late IUGR, which followed a severity gradient when the VD and non-VD subgroups were considered. Regarding amino acids and derivatives, early IUGR showed significantly increased glutamine and creatine levels, whereas the amounts of phenylalanine and tyrosine were decreased in early and late-VD IUGR samples. Valine and leucine were decreased in late IUGR samples. Choline levels were decreased in all clinical subforms of IUGR. Conclusions: IUGR is not associated with a unique metabolic profile, but important changes are present in different clinical subsets used in research and clinical practice. These results may help in characterizing comprehensively specific alterations underlying different IUGR subsets.