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During the last decade, GIS have suffered of the lack of structured information and semantic definition of the data. The numerous origins of the data and the spatial localization of the object inferred many inconsistencies among them. Indeed, the way to collect data and the level of sampling of the boundary differ from one application to another and from one expert to another. This leads to different representations of the same reality and different models of semantically identical objects orfatcat:vlvqdfnqjbc47hexanr77epey4