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The protection and control systems in the US utility industry are still primarily composed of electromechanical relays and systems. Over 80 percent of the relays are still electromechanical at Michigan Electric Transmission Company (METC), with only incremental upgrading to microprocessor technology carried out in recent years. Maintenance costs of older equipment are high, and limited nonoperational fault data is accessed via modem from the microprocessor relays. METC embarked on a program todoi:10.1109/hicss.2006.446 dblp:conf/hicss/MyrdaU06 fatcat:piofvq3nzbczral4kkpugznd4e