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Frontiers in Physics
Optical lattices (OLs) with diverse transverse patterns and optical vortex lattices (OVLs) with special phase singularities have played important roles in the fields of atomic cooling, particle manipulation, quantum entanglement, and optical communication. As a matter of consensus until now, the OL patterns are generated by coherently superimposing multiple transverse modes with a fixed phase difference through the transverse mode locking (TML) effect. There are phase singularities in the darkdoi:10.3389/fphy.2021.801916 fatcat:xh5dro74hncjhcnwywgyzsl65m