Limits to the clinical Application of ICSI

Kaoru Yanagida, Haruo Katayose, Hiroyuki Yazawa, Syotaro Hayashi, Yasuyuki Kimura, Akira Sato
2000 Journal of Mammalian Ova Research  
Microinsemination is a revolutionary and promising technique for the treatment of severe male infertility, such as severe oligozoospermia, asthenozoospermia, and the case of unexplained unfertilization in which the conventional IVF is ineffective even if semen parameters are normal. Several different microinsemination techniques, such as zona opening [1-3], subzona sperm injection [4, 5], and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) [6], have been introduced. ICSI is considered the most
more » ... technique, because ICSI has the highest fertilization rate and can be performed with the smallest number of spermatozoa. In addition, this technique is effective for functional disorders, such as disorders of capacitation, acrosome reaction, and spermegg fusion. ICSI was first reported in 1992 [6], and for the above reasons became a powerful fertilization tool in only three or four years [7, 8]. At first, ICSI was indicated for the treatment of severe infertility in which the probability of pregnancy was nonexistent or very law. Its indications were then expanded to include azoospermia, and it has been fairly effective [9][10][11], but in such cases chromosomal and genetic abnormalities may be passed on to children [12][13][14]. In addition, it has been clarified that ICSI is not effective in some cases, such as necrozoospermia [15], in which there are no viable spermatozoa; immotile spermatozoa [16], in which viable spermatozoa cannot always be picked up; cases in which spermatozoa have the disorder of oocyte activation factor; and azoospermia, in which mature spermatozoa cannot be found in the testes. The present paper concerns issues that must be considered in the performance of ICSI, as well as limitations to the effectiveness of ICSI.
doi:10.1274/jmor.17.77 fatcat:ftlpcazz3zehtjlj3itwb6bj7i