Pauci-Immune Vasculitides with Kidney Involvement [chapter]

Sophia Lionaki, Chrysanthi Skalioti, Smaragdi Marinaki, John N. Boletis
2018 Vasculitis In Practice - An Update on Special Situations - Clinical and Therapeutic Considerations  
The clinical entity of pauci-immune vasculitis encompasses a group of diseases that may involve any organ system of the body and may be fatal if left untreated. This chapter will review these diseases, with a special interest in the clinical setting of kidney involvement. Small vessel vasculitides associated with the presence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies in the circulation will be the main part, since the vast majority of patients with histopathological proof of pauci-immune
more » ... of pauci-immune vasculitis are positive for these antibodies. Pauci-immune glomerulonephritis often manifests with rapidly deteriorating kidney function, while it may be accompanied by systemic necrotizing small vessel vasculitis such as microscopic polyangiitis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, or eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Importantly, antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody specificity has been shown to be associated with distinct clinical syndromes and different prognostic profiles among patients with pauci-immune vasculitis allowing easier recognition of the disease and long-term prognosis. Each of the clinical phenotypes will be described thoroughly with respect to the criteria required for establishment of diagnosis, the specific characteristics of renal and extrarenal histopathology, the clinical picture, the therapeutic management, and prognosis in short and long terms.
doi:10.5772/intechopen.76175 fatcat:ammqv2wsvngy5ok3r3gj4uvxwu