METHICILLIN AND VANCOMYCIN RESISTANCE AMONG STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS STRAINS ISOLATED FROM PATIENTS ATTENDING TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN EASTERN BIHAR
English

Randhir Kumar, Krishan Nandan, Sangeeta Dey, Dhananjay Kumar, Dharmendra Singh
2017 Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences  
BACKGROUND Staphylococcus aureus is notorious for its ability to become resistant to antibiotics. MRSA emerged as nosocomial pathogen in the early 1960s. Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are implicated in serious infections and nosocomial infection outbreaks. These strains show resistance to a wide range of antibiotics, thus limiting the treating options to very few agent s such as vancomycin and teicoplanin. Vancomycin has been regarded as the first-line drug for treatment of
more » ... ug for treatment of MRSA. At the same time, there has been an increase in the use of this antibiotic for other infections as well. This has further lead to an increase in the number of both Vancomycin Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) and Vancomycin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA). Aims-To determine the presence of MRSA and VRSA among staphylococcal isolates in Eastern Bihar. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 10806 samples from patients attending inpatient and outpatient departments from January 2011 to April 2013 were included in the study. Samples were processed as per standard protocol and antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by modified Kirby-Bauer method. Isolates were tested by disc diffusion using oxacillin disc 1 µg, cefoxitin disc 30 µg and by agar dilution for MRSA. VRSA isolates were tested using 30 µg vancomycin disc. MIC of vancomycin to Staphylococcus aureus was determined by agar dilution method. RESULTS Out of a total of 633 Staphylococcus aureus isolates, 22.4% were found to be methicillin resistant, 9.95% were VISA and 3.79% were VRSA. Results of oxacillin agar dilution method were in concordance with the cefoxitin disc diffusion method in detecting MRSA strains. All VISA strains were sensitive to linezolid and all VRSA were sensitive to imipenem. 88.7% and 87.3% of all MRSA isolates were sensitive to imipenem and linezolid respectively. CONCLUSION The present shows that antibiotic resistance is steadily on the rise. It is also quite clear that MRSA is acquiring resistance to drugs like rifampicin, teicoplanin, amikacin, netilmicin and imipenem which were at one time used as an alternative to vancomycin. It is therefore imperative for the medical community to work together to fight against this man-made phenomenon called antibiotic resistance.
doi:10.14260/jemds/2017/195 fatcat:nft5jqebyffg5pshynwuc6t7zq