Imperialist competition algorithm for distributed generation connections

A. Soroudi, M. Ehsan
2012 IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution  
This paper proposes an Imperialist Competition Algorithm (ICA) to maximize the benefits of distribution network operators (DNOs) accrued due to presence of distributed generation (DG) units in distribution networks. The sum of active loss reduction and network investment deferral incentives has been considered as objective function to be maximized in this study. The optimal location and size of DG units in the network are found considering various techno-economical issues. The application of
more » ... e application of the proposed methodology in the UK under current Ofgem financial incentives for DNOs is investigated. The strength of the proposed approach is validated by comparing the obtained results with other methods of the literature. 66023261 2 (DNOs) to meet the requirements of their customers. The main point of deregulation is to split generation, transport and consumption of electrical energy between independent parties. Therefore, DG units installed nowadays are not owned by Distribution Network Operators (DNOs). DNOs typically only give permission for connection of DG units to distribution network (i.e. check whether DG unit satisfies technical requirements). Although in unbundled environment the DNO does not decide about the location and size of DG units but these quantities have direct impact on DNO's benefits. The DG planning problem (finding the optimal size and location) is a Mixed Integer Non-Linear Problem (MINLP). Generally finding the global optimal solution of a MINLP problem is a difficult task. Therefore the DNO needs a computation tool to deal with this problem. This paper presents a new methodology to answer this need. B. Literature review The DG units charge the flow of energy over the feeders of the distribution network by injecting active and reactive power to their interconnection node. The DG units may bring different benefits for Distribution Network Operators (DNOs) such as: shorter construction period [1], network investment deferral [2], active loss reduction [3]-[5], environmental emission reduction [6] and reliability improvement [7], [8]. The benefits of DG units highly depend on the size and location of them in the network. Many methods have been proposed in the literature to find the optimal location and size of DG units in the network which have considered various technical aspects such as: voltage limits, feeder capacity limits and penetration level. Additionally, there are some regulatory issues which may change the potential benefits of DG units for DNOs. These frameworks are widely classified into two categories: DG owned and unbundled DNO [9]. In DG-owned DNO category, the DNO is allowed to perform DG investment. This gives DNO the opportunity to make decision about the size and location of DG units. The second category prohibits the DNO of DG ownership/investment. The DG units are installed and operated by DG owners. The main goal of DG operator/owners is maximizing its benefits. This can be used by DNO to identify the optimal location ans size of DG units as a guide for DG investors and steer their decisions. The DGowned category has been highly investigated in the literature like [2], [10], [11]. Few literature deal with N E i Number of colonies in i th empire cos ϕ dg Power factor of a dg Q dg i Reactive power injected by a dg in bus i Q D i Reactive power demand in bus i I ℓ Capacity limit of existing feeder ℓ V max Upper operation limit of voltage 12 V i Voltage magnitude in bus i δ i Voltage angle in bus i
doi:10.1049/iet-gtd.2011.0190 fatcat:t2j2ywrcq5bn7mikc6av3xoj4a