A Medical Decision Support System for the Differential Diagnosis Based on Medical Information Text Mining

Andreas Kanavos
2020 Biomedical Journal of Scientific & Technical Research  
DD constitutes the process of disease detection, among several diseases, which presents similar clinical findings and symptoms. Doctors apply diagnostic procedures either to diagnose the disease or to approach the potential disease. It is a systematic diagnostic method for diagnosing the disease in a patient. It may not be clear to make a safe diagnosis due to many diseases that show small differences in subtle symptoms. Different methodological approaches can be applied to DD, based on a
more » ... s of elimination of the least probable diseases according to sets of criteria according to the knowledge of the doctor. Medical logic follows a process of information retrieval that reduces the chances of the parameters of several candidate diseases to negligible levels based on symptoms, patient history (chief complaint, history of present illness, past medical history, past surgical history, social history, medications, and allergies, etc.), laboratory tests, etc. and, of course, medical knowledge to approach the most likely disease [1-3]. Many Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) tools promise to help and support a medical decision in diagnosing diseases. In most of these tools, the doctor should enter the symptoms that find in the clinical examination of a patient. Usually, these symptoms can be entered into the system as one word, i.e., fever, headache, etc. Many diseases have similar symptoms, and as a result, many diseases appear on the doctor's screen, usually in terms of information retrieval in the system's databases. For example, it is difficult for an information system to distinguish low-temperature fever from high-temperature fever. The low-temperature fever can ARTICLE INFO ABSTRACT Many methodologies, as well as information systems, have been developed to support medical decision making in terms of disease diagnosis. The majority of them are based on keyword searches, while others on artificial intelligence, ontologies, etc. However, there is no single approach that can successfully diagnose diseases because most of them rely on either the statistical appearance of keywords describing symptoms, and many have similar symptoms. In contrast, the more advanced ones dealing with artificial intelligence approaches and ontologies lead to poor results. This paper proposes a system based on the approach given by the medical practice itself and is called Differential Diagnosis (DD). More to the point, doctors' logic concerns data retrieval from knowledge recorded in their memory, combining thus more descriptive expressions that describe symptoms critical for concluding the correct disease. One doctor could exclude diseases or converge on them depending on the combined data assessment from the clinical examination and the history, which is then confirmed by some additional examinations. The proposed system approaches the diagnosis with the logic of the doctor's approach due to the DD. It relies on its back-end core where Natural Language Processing (NLP) of the medical bibliography is utilized. Furthermore, common areas, with medical protocols and findings on Venn diagrams leading to a successful diagnosis, are extracted.
doi:10.26717/bjstr.2020.30.005020 fatcat:53kylkomynfxlpxrqcfsf6kyky