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In this paper, an adaptive load torque observer based on backstepping control is designed, which achieves accurate load estimation where the load is unknown. Based on this, in order to reduce the loss of the motor at low load, a smooth switching strategy of rotor flux based on speed error is designed. According to the real-time speed error of the induction motor, the smooth switching strategy achieves dynamic flux switching. Firstly, when the uncertain load occurs for the first time in thedoi:10.3390/en13143712 fatcat:idlutp3eubfr7htzbvtmzwaevq