A Multi-Center Retrospective Study of Clinical features, Laboratory Characteristics, and Outcomes of325 Hospitalized Children with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19); A Preliminary Report from Iranian Network for Research in Viral Diseases (INRVD)
Background: The objectives of this study were to analyze the clinical features and laboratory profiles and risk factors associated with critical illness of children with SARS-CoV-2.Methods: 325 COVID-19 pediatric patients were recruited through a collaborative research network between March and May 2020. Demographics, clinical, laboratory, and radiological results were obtained from patient files. Results: Of 325 patients, 189 (58%) and 136 (42%) were males and females, respectively. The mean
... e was 6.18 ± 4.99. 195 (60%) and 130 (40%), had moderate and severe conditions, respectively. 45 (13.9%) of patients died. The common symptoms were fever (72.6%), cough (59%) and shortness of breath (36%). 254 (78%) and 145 (44.6%( had gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms, respectively. Shortness of breath, rhinorrhea, nausea/vomiting, decrease in platelet counts; increase values in C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and blood urea nitrogen, decrease in the blood PH and HCo3 were significantly associated with the disease severity. 58.2% and 65.4% of patients showed abnormal radiographic appearance in Chest X-ray and in chest CT scan, respectively, which were correlated with disease severity. 104 (32%) of patients referred to ICU. The coexistence of comorbidity was the main factor associated with ICU admission, shock, arrhythmia, acute kidney injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute cardiac injury, and death. Conclusions: We describe a higher than previously recognized rate of COVID-19 mortality in Iranian pediatric patients. Epidemiological factors, such as relatively high case fatality rate in the country and the presence of underlying diseases are the main factors for the high death rate.