Aalborg Universitet Internet of Things Heterogeneous Interoperable Network Architecture Design Bhalerao, Dipashree M. Internet of Things Heterogeneous Interoperable Network Architecture Design A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING OF AALBORG UNIVERSITY IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY DIPASHREE MILIND BHALERAO

Assoc Tahir Riaz, Ole Madsen
2014 unpublished
III Dedicated to my parents IV KONCEPTUALISERE Internet ting er (IoT) stade udlede, at der ikke er modne tingenes internet arkitektur til rådighed. Afhandlingen bidrager en abstrakt generisk tingenes internet henvisning arkitektur udvikling med specifikationerne. Nyheder i afhandling foreslås løsninger og implementeringer til skalerbarhed, heterogene interoperabilitet, sikkerhed og udvidelse af tingenes internet arkitektur for landdistrikter, fattige og katastrofale (RPC) områder. VLC er
more » ... et og bevist som en af de passende Internetwork betyder at overvinde ulemperne ved landdistrikter og katastrofale områder. IVarious operationer eller funktionelle krav, af tingenes internet arkitektur bestemmes ved at finde detaljeret udførelse sekvens af operationer. Komplet tingenes internet software og hardware komponent topologi forklares med komponent og Udplaceringsdiagrammer hhv. IoT arkitektur begraensninger eller ikke-funktionelle krav såsom specifikationer, skalerbarhed, sikkerhed og privatlivets fred, datamaengder, enhed tilpasningsevne, interoperabilitet, strømforbrug, selvbevidsthed og søgemekanismer funktioner analyseres. Software arkitektur er udviklet ved hjaelp af krav analyse af funktionelle og ikke-funktionelle krav. Abstrakt tingenes internet arkitektur model er valideret ved brug af Arduino singleboard microcontroller, til overvågning af lysintensiteten ved hjaelp af LDR. .Som et første ikke funktionelt traek skalerbarhed arkitektur overvejes. Nogle af IoTapplikationer (alle sensorer baseret) sende de samme oplysninger flere gange eller inden for et bestemt område af vaerdier. Det er bevist, at reduktionen af data på en kilde, vil resultere i enorme lodrette skalerbarhed og indirekte horisontal også. Anden ikke funktionelt traek bidrager i heterogene interoperable netvaerk arkitektur for begraensede Ting. For at eliminere stigende antal gateways, Wi-Fi-adgangspunkt med Bluetooth, ZigBee (nyt adgangspunkt er indkaldt som BZ-Fi) foreslås. Sameksistens af Wi-Fi, Bluetooth og Zigbee netvaerk teknologier resulterer i interferens. For at reducere interferens, der Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) foreslås gennemført i Bluetooth og Zigbee. Det foreslåede netvaerk arkitektur gør det muligt at rejse og til at kommunikere Bluetooth og Zigbee knudepunkter i Wi-Fi-netvaerk uden Wi-Fi-interfacet i dem. Tredje ikke funktionel funktion finder sikkerhedsarkitektur for alle typer af grå huller angreb (DoS attack). Den foreslåede arkitektur er baseret på algoritme designet netvaerkslagprotokol. Resultaterne bekraefter naer omkring 100% opsving i pakken drop rate. Det unikke ved V algoritmen er i tre stikprøver, hvis gennemførelse afgørelse traeffes under kørslen, sammen med den første kontrol for et fast antal gange. IVLC overvinder spørgsmål af langdistance daekning, driftsomkostninger, gentagne investeringer i den katastrofale område og en hurtig forbindelse, kan overvindes ved hjaelp af handy cam for en lang distance (snesevis af KMs forventet) udendørs kommunikation. Eksperimenter er gjort for forskellige hastigheder og på forskellige tidspunkter. Raekke udfordringer og spørgsmål af tingenes internet arkitektur diskuteres i detaljer, for fremtidig forskning. VI Abstract Internet of Thing's (IoT) state of the art deduce that there is no mature Internet of Things architecture available. Thesis contributes an abstract generic IoT system reference architecture development with specifications. Novelties of thesis are proposed solutions and implementations for Scalability, heterogeneous interoperability, security and extension of IoT architecture for rural, poor and catastrophic (RPC) areas. VLC is proposed and proved as one of the suitable internetwork means to overcome drawbacks of rural and catastrophic areas. Various operations or functional requirements, of IoT architecture are determined by finding detailed execution sequence of operations. Complete IoT system's software and hardware component topology is explained with component and deployment diagrams respectively. IoT architecture constraints or non-functional requirements such as specifications, scalability, security and privacy, data volumes, device adaptability, interoperability, power consumption, self awareness, and discovery mechanisms features are analyzed. Software architecture is developed using requirement analysis, of functional and non functional requirements. Abstract IoT architecture model is validated using Arduino single-board microcontroller, for monitoring light intensity using LDR. As a first non functional feature scalability of architecture is considered. Some of the IoT applications (all sensors based) send the same information repeatedly or within a specific range of values. It is proved that reduction of data at a source will result in huge vertical scalability and indirectly horizontal also. Second non functional feature contributes in heterogeneous interoperable network architecture for constrained Things. To eliminate increasing number of gateways, Wi-Fi access point with Bluetooth, Zigbee (new access point is called as BZ-Fi) is proposed. Coexistence of Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and Zigbee network technologies results in interference. To reduce the interference, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is proposed to be implemented in Bluetooth and Zigbee. The proposed network architecture allows to travel and to communicate the Bluetooth and Zigbee nodes in the Wi-Fi network without Wi-Fi interface in them. Third non functional feature finds security architecture for all types of grey holes attacks (DoS attack). The proposed architecture is based on algorithm of designed network layer protocol. The results verifies near about 100% recovery in the packet drop rate. The VII uniqueness of the algorithm is in three random tests, whose implementation decision is taken at run time, along with the first checking for a fixed number of times. It is shown that the famous Okumura-Hata model is insufficient for defining all ICT areas. A new ICT area model is proposed for rural, poor and catastrophic (applicable for any area) areas. These definitions help in understanding development of required area from ICT point of view. VLC overcomes issues of long distance coverage, operating cost, repeated investments in the catastrophic area and a fast network connection, can be overcome by using handy cam for a long distance (tens of KMs expected) outdoor communication. Experimentation is done for various speeds and at various times. Number of challenges and issues of IoT architecture are discussed in detail, for future research. VIII
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