Clay Mineralogy of Mississippian Strata of Southeast Iowa
Clays and clay minerals
Clay mineral suites were extracted from 125 biocalcarenites, dolomites, mudstones and arenaceous rocks from the ~narine Keokuk, Warsaw and Salem formations of Mississipplan age from southeast Iowa and nearby portions of Illinois and Missouri. Well crystallized illite, 2~ 1 polytype, randomly interstratified illite-montmorillonite, and quartz are in all clay suites. In the south part of the area, trioetahedral chlorite is absent or rare in Keokuk rocks, but is increasingly abundant upward in the
... ndant upward in the section. Kaolinite is confined to the upper part of the section. In the north part of the area, the same upward order of appearance prevails, but the first appearances of chlorite and kaolinite are shifted downward in the stratigraphic section. This distribution of clay minerals is similar to that found by investigators in other areas: kaolinite confined near shore, chlorite in an intermediate position and illite concentrated farther from shore. Clay mineral evidence, combined with petrographic and stratigraphie data, strongly indicates that the type Mississippian strata of southeast Iowa were deposited in a southward regressing epicontinental sea. Vermiculite and abundant mixed-layer illite-montmoriUonite, weathering products of chlorite and illite, respectively, mark a local unconformity between lower and upper members of the Warsaw Formation on the crest of the Warsaw Anticline.