Theoretical Analysis of LLE Based on Its Weighting Step

Yair Goldberg, Ya'acov Ritov
2012 Journal of Computational And Graphical Statistics  
The local linear embedding algorithm (LLE) is a widely used nonlinear dimension-reducing algorithm. However, its large sample properties are still not well understood. In this paper we present new theoretical results for LLE based on the way that LLE computes its weight vectors. We show that LLE's weight vectors are computed from the high-dimensional neighborhoods and are thus highly sensitive to noise. We also demonstrate that in some cases LLE's output converges to a linear projection of the
more » ... igh-dimensional input. We prove that for a version of LLE that uses the low-dimensional neighborhood representation (LDR-LLE), the weights are robust against noise. We also prove that for conformally embedded manifold, the pre-image of the input points achieves a low value of the LDR-LLE objective function, and that close-by points in the input are mapped to close-by points in the output. Finally, we prove that asymptotically LDR-LLE preserves the order of the points of a one-dimensional manifold. The Matlab code and and all data sets in the presented examples are available online.
doi:10.1080/10618600.2012.679221 fatcat:llywresyt5avjbfsyvqkqushfe