Phonic and Motor Stereotypies in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Video Analysis and Neurological Characterization

Evamaria Lanzarini, Jacopo Pruccoli, Irene Grimandi, Chiara Spadoni, Marida Angotti, Veronica Pignataro, Leonardo Sacrato, Emilio Franzoni, Antonia Parmeggiani
2021 Brain Sciences  
Stereotypies are among the core symptoms of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and can cause significant clinical impairment. At present, phonic stereotypies in ASD have been scarcely explored. This study investigates the frequency, variability, and typologies of phonic and motor stereotypies in children with ASD and their association with clinical neurological variables. We examined 35 patients by recording standardized video sessions and administering the Autism Diagnostic Observation
more » ... ond Edition (ADOS-2). Phonic stereotypies were present in 83.0% of the patients. The most prevalent subtypes were noncommunicative vocalizations (60.0%), single syllables (37.1%), and echolalic stereotypies (22.9%). Noncommunicative vocalizations were more frequent in nonverbal patients (OR = 4.629, p = 0.008), while echolalic stereotypies were more represented in verbal patients (OR = 0.279, p = 0.028). Patients with intellectual disability (ID) showed a higher number (F(1,26) = 9.406, p = 0.005) and variability (F(1,25) = 7.174, p = 0.013) of motor stereotypies, with a higher number (F(1,26) = 13.268, p = 0.005) and variability (F(1,26) = 9.490, p = 0.005) of stereotypies involving the head/trunk/shoulders category. Patients with guttural stereotypies showed a higher variability of total motor stereotypies (OR = 1.487, p = 0.032) and self-directed motor stereotypies (OR = 4.389, p = 0.042). These results, combined with a standardized video-analysis, document the frequency and variability of phonic stereotypies among children with ASD. Correlations between specific phonic stereotypies and verbal abilities should be investigated further.
doi:10.3390/brainsci11040431 pmid:33800677 fatcat:5diorp7ic5b6fngeaeek2nhe6a