Calcium signaling and secretory granule pool dynamics underlie biphasic insulin secretion and its amplification by glucose: experiments and modeling
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells is controlled by a triggering pathway that culminates in calcium influx and regulated exocytosis of secretory granules, and by a less understood amplifying pathway that augments calcium-induced exocytosis. In response to an abrupt increase in glucose concentration, insulin secretion exhibits a first peak followed by a lower sustained second phase. This biphasic secretion pattern is disturbed in diabetes. It has been attributed to
... attributed to depletion and subsequent refilling of a readily releasable pool of granules or to the phasic cytosolic calcium dynamics induced by glucose. Here, we apply mathematical modeling to experimental data from mouse islets to investigate how calcium and granule pool dynamics interact to control dynamic insulin secretion. Experimental calcium traces are used as inputs in three increasingly complex models of pool dynamics, which are fitted to insulin secretory patterns obtained using a set of protocols of glucose and tolbutamide stimulation. New calcium and secretion data for so-called staircase protocols, in which the glucose concentration is progressively increased, are presented. These data can be reproduced without assuming any heterogeneity in the model, in contrast to previous modeling, because of nontrivial calcium dynamics. We find that amplification by glucose can be explained by increased mobilization and priming of granules. Overall, our results indicate that calcium dynamics contribute substantially to shaping insulin secretion kinetics, which implies that better insight into the events creating phasic calcium changes in human β-cells is needed to understand the cellular mechanisms that disturb biphasic insulin secretion in diabetes.