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In this paper, an analytical and accurate in-to-out (I2O) human body path loss (PL) model at 2.45 GHz is derived based on a 3D heterogeneous human body model under safety constraints. The bit error rate (BER) performance for this channel using multiple efficient modulation schemes is investigated and the link budget is analyzed based on a predetermined satisfactory BER of 10´3. In addition, an incremental relay-based cooperative quality of service-aware (QoS-aware) routing protocol for thedoi:10.3390/electronics5030038 fatcat:jtx6m3baorgvpkhqwsaaf35yoa