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Visible Light Communications
Vehicular communications are foreseen to play a key role to increase road safety and realize autonomous driving. In addition to the radio frequency (RF)-based dedicated short range communication (DSRC) and long-term evolution (LTE) communication technologies, vehicular visible light communication (V2LC) is proposed as a complementary solution, utilizing readily deployed vehicle light emitting diode (LED) lights as transmitter with image sensors such as photodetector (PD) and camera as the<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.69536">doi:10.5772/intechopen.69536</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/5e2mli4nuzauni63qvq2zjwzk4">fatcat:5e2mli4nuzauni63qvq2zjwzk4</a> </span>
more »... ers. V2LC fundamentals including transmitter and receiver characteristics with dimming capabilities are reviewed in this chapter. Depending on the field measurements using off-the-shelf automotive LED light, communication constraints are demonstrated. Moreover, considering the line-of-sight (LoS) characteristics, security aspects of V2LC is compared with the DSRC for a practical vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication scenario. Finally, superiority of V2LC in terms of communication security with the proposed SecVLC method is demonstrated through simulation results. security vulnerabilities of RF-based communications, optical wireless communication is proposed as a complementary technology for vehicular connectivity. Utilizing redundant communication schemes for vehicular communications is expected to increase road safety while supporting safer automated driving applications. LEDs enable flexible vehicle headlight/taillight design, while providing better illumination, low energy consumption, and longer durability. Hence, LED lights are started to be widely deployed with new production vehicles. Moreover, vehicle LED lights enable creation of various illumination patterns to prevent glare from other road users and illuminate the blind areas better . LED lights illumination requirements and design guidelines are also included in the automotive light regulations , which paves the way for more manufacturers to utilize LED in their vehicles. Dimming capability of LED lights is another favorable feature for automotive industry, providing energy efficient vehicular lighting. Modern vehicles are also equipped with image sensors such as PDs and cameras. PDs are utilized to detect ambient light levels and rain to automatically activate headlights or wiper blades, while the cameras are used for driver assistance systems such as lane keeping assistant, traffic sign recognition, pedestrian detection, and forward collision warning. Hence, usage of the existing vehicle LED lights and image sensors is foreseen to allow low vehicular visible light communication (V2LC) system implementation costs. Visible light communication (VLC) systems with intensity modulation and direct detection (IM/DD) utilize signal intensity instead of signal phase information. As phase information is prone to distortions for mobility scenarios, sole dependence on signal intensity of IM/DD scheme also makes VLC a promising technology for vehicular communications. Currently, V2V aims to transmit vehicle position and state information to enhance the road awareness of nearby vehicles. However, with the upcoming autonomous driving features, high-definition real time road maps, vehicle radar data, high-resolution image, and video data from on-board cameras are expected to be exchanged between nearby vehicles. These events driven large size data is required to be conveyed with minimum latency. Furthermore, high mobility requires higher message update rates resulting with dense message generation. In order to provide high data rates with minimum latency, hybrid schemes, utilizing various communication technologies simultaneously, are provisioned to be favorable. It has already been demonstrated that, communication degradation sourced by packet collisions and contention with the usage of single scheme such as DSRC can be avoided with a hybrid scheme employing DSRC and V2LC  . Upto date, VLC is reported to achieve multi-Gbit/s data rates for a few meter distances. Compared to DSRC maximum data rate support with 27 Mbps upto 1000 m distances , Gbit/s data rates make VLC attractive for high data rate vehicular communications. In addition to higher data rate advantages, with its immunity to malicious jamming with LoS characteristics, VLC is also foreseen to off-load RF networks while providing secure communications for safety critical applications. In the literature, various studies investigated V2LC applications. In Ref. , LEDs are utilized as vehicle ambient lights and dome lights are foreseen to act as VLC transmitters. Authors in Visible Light Communications 134 Vehicular Visible Light Communications http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.69536 Vehicular Visible Light Communications http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.69536 Vehicular Visible Light Communications
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