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AbstractBitcoin has always been used to store arbitrary data, particularly since Bitcoin Core developers added a dedicated method for data storage in 2014: the OP Return operator. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of all OP Return transactions published on Bitcoin between September 14, 2018, and December 31, 2019. The 32.4 million OP Return transactions (22% of all Bitcoin transactions) published during this period added 10 GB to the blockchain's size. Almost all OP Return transactionsdoi:10.1007/s10723-020-09537-9 fatcat:ziz3ao3ei5g5tgypzvlgn5ylg4