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Two classes of digital watermarks have been developed to protect the copyright ownership of digital images. Robust watermarks are designed to withstand attacks on an image (such as compression or scaling), while fragile watermarks are designed to detect minute changes in an image. Fragile marks can also identify where an image has been altered. This paper compares two fragile watermarks. The first method uses a hash function to obtain a digest of the image. An altered or forged version of thedoi:10.1117/12.344670 dblp:conf/sswmc/WolfgangD99 fatcat:xpiiuhjspzelxijftoy5bifi4y