Low Estrogen Exposure and/or Defective Estrogen Signaling Induces Disturbances in Glucose Uptake and Energy Expenditure
Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism
Correlations between estrogen signaling and human morbidity seems to be very unclear and difficult topic. Nowadays, the opinions of scientists have been partially changed regarding "estrogen induced diseases", but the overwhelming literary data are still contradictory. Physiological estrogen levels in healthy premenopausal women supply protection against insulin resistance, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and malignancies as compared with men of the same age. However, after menopause a
... fter menopause a decreased ovarian estrogen synthesis will rapidly deteriorate the glucose sensitivity and increases the prevalence of life threatening diseases. New findings on the functions of tissular estrogen receptors (ERs) indicate that estradiol plays important role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis and energy expenditure. Diverse disorders associated with insulin resistance are usually well treatable by estradiol substitution both in pre-and postmenopausal women as well as in animal experiments. ERs seem to have balanced interplay in the maintenance of adaptation to the momentarily changing intra and extracellular stimuli. This equilibrium may be shattered in case of a defective estrogen supply or by the derangement of ER signaling pathways. Understanding the crosstalk and interplay between ERs illuminates the fact that there is no good or bad ER isoform, but they construe a complex system so as to achieve an ideal internal milieu. Considering the regulatory effects of ERs on food intake, insulin secretion, glucose uptake and metabolic processes, estrogen administration may be a therapeutic avenue to repair insulin sensitivity in patients with dysmetabolism and diabetes mellitus. JDM, an open access journal of hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism reveal the early phase of metabolic and hormonal disturbances [105, 106] .