Anatomy of Mitral Valve Complex as Revealed by Non-Invasive Imaging: Pathological, Surgical and Interventional Implications

Laura Anna Leo, Vera Lucia Paiocchi, Susanne Anna Schlossbauer, Elisa Gherbesi, Francesco Fulvio Faletra
2020
Knowledge of mitral valve (MV) anatomy has been accrued from anatomic specimens derived by cadavers, or from direct inspection during open heart surgery. However, today two-dimensional and three-dimensional transthoracic (2D/3D TTE) and transesophageal echocardiography (2D/3D TEE), computed tomography (CT) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) provide images of the beating heart of unprecedented quality in both two and three-dimensional format. Indeed, over the last few years these non-invasive
more » ... these non-invasive imaging techniques have been used for describing dynamic cardiac anatomy. Differently from the "dead" anatomy of anatomic specimens and the "static" anatomy observed during surgery, they have the unique ability of showing "dynamic" images from beating hearts. The "dynamic" anatomy gives us a better awareness, as any single anatomic arrangement corresponds perfectly to a specific function. Understanding normal anatomical aspects of MV apparatus is of a paramount importance for a correct interpretation of the wide spectrum of patho-morphological MV diseases. This review illustrates the anatomy of MV as revealed by non-invasive imaging describing physiological, pathological, surgical and interventional implications related to specific anatomical features of the MV complex. Abstract: Knowledge of mitral valve (MV) anatomy has been accrued from anatomic specimens derived by cadavers, or from direct inspection during open heart surgery. However, today two-dimensional and three-dimensional transthoracic (2D/3D TTE) and transesophageal echocardiography (2D/3D TEE), computed tomography (CT) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) provide images of the beating heart of unprecedented quality in both two and three-dimensional format. Indeed, over the last few years these non-invasive imaging techniques have been used for describing dynamic cardiac anatomy. Differently from the "dead" anatomy of anatomic specimens and the "static" anatomy observed during surgery, they have the unique ability of showing "dynamic" images from beating hearts. The "dynamic" anatomy gives us a better awareness, as any single anatomic arrangement corresponds perfectly to a specific function. Understanding normal anatomical aspects of MV apparatus is of a paramount importance for a correct interpretation of the wide spectrum of patho-morphological MV diseases. This review illustrates the anatomy of MV as revealed by non-invasive imaging describing physiological, pathological, surgical and interventional implications related to specific anatomical features of the MV complex.
doi:10.5167/uzh-195614 fatcat:6rb4oom2efel7hkrglu634npbm