The Online Construction of Personal Identity Through Trust and Privacy

Massimo Durante
2011 Information  
Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is a pressing health problem, and one of the main reasons for treatment failure with antiepileptic drugs. This has become apparent in the event of severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), which can be life-threatening. In this review, four hypotheses were identified to describe how the immune system is triggered in the development of SCARs, which predominantly involve the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins. Several genetic variations in HLA genes have been
more » ... n to be strongly associated with the susceptibility to developing SCARs when prescribed carbamazepine or phenytoin. These genetic variations were also shown to be prevalent in certain populations. Apart from the HLA genes, other genes proposed to affect the risk of SCARs are genes encoding for CYP450 drug-metabolising enzymes, which are involved in the pharmacokinetics of offending drugs. Genetic variants in CYP2C9 and CYPC19 enzymes were also suggested to modulate the risk of SCARs in some populations. This review summarizes the literature on the manifestation and aetiology of antiepileptic-induced SCARs, updates on pharmacogenetic markers associated with this reaction and the implementation of pre-emptive testing as a preventive strategy for SCARs. Citation: Ahmed, A.F.; Sukasem, C.; Sabbah, M.A.; Musa, N.F.; Noor, D.A.M.; Daud, N.A.A. Genetic Determinants in HLA and Cytochrome P450 Genes in the Risk of Aromatic Antiepileptic-Induced Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions. J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11, 383. https://doi.
doi:10.3390/info2040594 fatcat:gg4ym2hh25fztfagtdp2wt2ici