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We describe a modif ied confocal microscope in which depth discrimination results from matched f iltering by a volume hologram instead of a pinhole f ilter. The depth resolution depends on the numerical aperture of the objective lens and the thickness of the hologram, and the dynamic range is determined by the diffraction eff iciency. We calculate the depth response of the volume holographic confocal microscope, verify it experimentally, and present the scanned image of a silicon wafer with microfabricated surface structures.doi:10.1364/ol.24.000811 pmid:18073862 fatcat:52ajwtkoyvgdflbc2uc7pbuyri