Case Report: Cyclophosphamide in COVID-19 – when an absolute contraindication is an absolute necessity [version 2; peer review: 2 approved]

Kamila Bołtuć, Ada Bielejewska, Alejandro Coloma-Millar, Robert Dziugieł, Arkadiusz Bociek, Agnieszka Perkowska-Ptasińska, Andrzej Jaroszyński
2021 F1000Research  
Despite many studies on COVID-19, our knowledge of it remains incomplete. In some cases, treating SARS-CoV-2 infection concomitant with other diseases can be particularly challenging, as finding an appropriate treatment may involve some risks. Case presentation: A 34-year-old SARS-CoV-2 positive patient admitted due to fever, dyspnoea, haemoptysis and pneumonia, developed alveolar haemorrhage and acute kidney injury. Due to his severe state, abnormalities in laboratory tests and rapidly
more » ... ing loss of kidney function, kidney biopsy, as well as antibody panel were carried out, in which perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (p-ANCA) were found with a high titer (>200; N: <1:20). The results of kidney biopsy, combined with clinical manifestation and laboratory findings prompted the diagnosis of rapidly progressing glomerulonephritis (RPGN) in the course of p-ANCA vasculitis. Initial treatment consisted of heamodialyses, remdesivir, plasmaphereses, intravenous immunoglobulins, antibiotics, corticosteroids and nadroparin. Once the haemorrhage had subsided, kidney function had been partially retrieved and heamodialyses had no longer been necessary, cyclophosphamide treatment was initiated, despite being contraindicated in COVID-19 according to its summary of product characteristics. Immunotherapy is still continued. The patient has already received a total of 2.4g of cyclophosphamide (4 cycles of 600mg each every three weeks). Pulmonary and radiological regression, as well as improvement of renal parameters have been achieved. Conclusions: We suspect that cyclophosphamide, the drug of choice in p-ANCA vasculitis, could be a potential factor providing regression of the radiological changes in the lungs and it could have prevented the patient from developing acute respiratory distress syndrome. COVID-19 diagnosis should not exclude searching for other diseases which can have a similar course. When treating a patient in a life-threatening condition, a departure from trying to find the [...]
doi:10.12688/f1000research.55625.2 doaj:701c463709324fccab711a21ea563f74 fatcat:ug6a3suytfhetdqzqguxqpzj74