The evolutionary state of the southern dense core Chamaeleon-MMS1
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Aims: Our goal is to set constraints on the evolutionary state of the dense core Cha-MMS1 in the Chamaeleon I molecular cloud. Methods: We analyze molecular line observations carried out with the new submillimeter telescope APEX. We look for outflow signatures around the dense core and probe its chemical structure, which we compare to predictions of models of gas-phase chemistry. We also use the public database of the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST) to compare Cha-MMS1 with the two Class 0
... two Class 0 protostars IRAM 04191 and L1521F, which are at the same distance. Results: We measure a large deuterium fractionation for N2H+ (11 +/- 3 %), intermediate between the prestellar core L1544 and the very young Class 0 protostar L1521F. It is larger than for HCO+ (2.5 +/- 0.9 %), which is probably the result of depletion removing HCO+ from the high-density inner region. Our CO(3-2) map reveals the presence of a bipolar outflow driven by the Class I protostar Ced 110 IRS 4 but we do not find evidence for an outflow powered by Cha-MMS1. We also report the detection of Cha-MMS1 at 24, 70 and 160 microns by the instrument MIPS of the SST, at a level nearly an order of magnitude lower than IRAM 04191 and L1521F. Conclusions: Cha-MMS1 appears to have already formed a compact object, either the first hydrostatic core at the very end of the prestellar phase, or an extremely young protostar that has not yet powered any outflow, at the very beginning of the Class 0 accretion phase.