English Historical Review
the reigning Pope Gregory VT was deposed for simony, and at Rome the ex-Pope Benedict IX was also deposed, presumably because the validity of his abdication was considered doubtful. It would be a natural source of the tale of the three rival popes, although Mr. Poole doubts the fact, if Sylvester IH was also, somewhat superfluously perhaps, condemned at the Synod of Sutri in order to clinch the proof that he was no pope ; and this would explain the new Pope Clement ITs expression explosis
... sion explosis tribus xllis with reference to Henry ill's proceedings. Mr. Poole further makes it probable that the Tusculan popes, though no model ecclesiastics, have been painted in over-dark colours ; and gives an explanation of the descent of Gregory VI and his connexion with Gregory VJLX, which satisfactorily combines the available evidence. In an appendix he solves the problem of the relationship of the Tusculan house, and hence of the Colonna, to Prince Alberic by a alight emendation of a charter from Subiaco, which carries conviction with it. An error, however, has slipped into the genealogical tree he gives with regard to a subordinate personage. Bertha, daughter of the Senatrix Marozia, evidently had Marozia's second husband, Guido of Tuscany, for her father, not K™g Hugh, since Liudprand's verses (Antapodosis, iiL 44) prove that issue of Guido by Marozia survived, and there is no hint in the sources of any children of Marozia by Hugh. C. W. P. 0.