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This paper focuses on the history of the human‐ machine hybrid called cyborg, and its various connotations within the scientific world, throughout the second half of the Twentieth century. The first part recalls the origin of the term "cyborg", invented as a contraction of cybernetic organism by Clynes and Kline, two scientists working for the NASA space program in 1960. Instead of creating earth‐like environments for the astronauts to live in, the authors propose to modify human biology indoaj:8c2b3d37e6a8486e825f78d2680b69f2 fatcat:64n3de5gxbdmznspgoazj4rdsu