Anthropometry of the Coracoid Process: Surgical Considerations in Arthroscopic Coracoclavicular Ligament Reconstruction
Purposed: The purpose of this study was to measure the dimensions of the coracoid process from MRI imaging to find a safe area for drilling in arthroscopic coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction.Materials and methods: A retrospective study of patients who underwent MRI of the shoulder in our hospital between July 1, 2016 and June 31, 2018. Inclusion criteria included patients aged 20–60 years, BMI < 35 and height > 150 cm. Exclusion criteria included patients with a history of coracoid
... of coracoid surgery, coracoid fracture or bone diseases affecting the coracoid bone. Measurement of the coracoid size was done in T1 MRI sagittal, coronal and axial views. Safe zone was defined as an area far from the medial and lateral base of the coracoid process, at least 5 mm each. Safe zone was then compared with the size of the drill hole to find an appropriately sized drill that would not violate the peripheral cortical coracoid bone.Results: Overall, 100 (male = 55, female = 45) patients were included in this study. Mean age, BMI and height of the patients were 48.5 years (range 22–58), 22.5 kg/m2 (range 18.5–28.4) and 164.5 cm (range 155–182), respectively. Mean safe area was 167.45 mm2 with males being slightly larger than females (male = 190.34 mm2, female = 140.99 mm2). The drill hole area was calculated by the radius (r) of the drill ( compared with the safe area. The maximum drill size for the men was 7 mm (154 mm2) and 6 mm (113.14 mm2) for women. However, we recommended a smaller drill size to account for any errors in position and technique.Conclusion: The safe area at the coracoid base was slightly larger in males as compared to females and the proper drill bit size was suggested to be less than 7 mm in males and 6 mm in females.