Supervised ensemble learning methods towards automatically filtering Urdu fake news within social media
PeerJ Computer Science
The popularity of the internet, smartphones, and social networks has contributed to the proliferation of misleading information like fake news and fake reviews on news blogs, online newspapers, and e-commerce applications. Fake news has a worldwide impact and potential to change political scenarios, deceive people into increasing product sales, defaming politicians or celebrities, and misguiding visitors to stop visiting a place or country. Therefore, it is vital to find automatic methods to
... ect fake news online. In several past studies, the focus was the English language, but the resource-poor languages have been completely ignored because of the scarcity of labeled corpus. In this study, we investigate this issue in the Urdu language. Our contribution is threefold. First, we design an annotated corpus of Urdu news articles for the fake news detection tasks. Second, we explore three individual machine learning models to detect fake news. Third, we use five ensemble learning methods to ensemble the base-predictors' predictions to improve the fake news detection system's overall performance. Our experiment results on two Urdu news corpora show the superiority of ensemble models over individual machine learning models. Three performance metrics balanced accuracy, the area under the curve, and mean absolute error used to find that Ensemble Selection and Vote models outperform the other machine learning and ensemble learning models.