APOE genotypes, lipid profiles and associated clinical markers in a Finnish population with cardiovascular disease risk factors
APOE ɛ4 allele predisposes to high cholesterol and increases the risk for lifestyle-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The aim of this study was to analyse interrelationships of APOE genotypes with lipid metabolism and lifestyle factors in middle-aged Finns among whom the CVD risk factors are common. Methods: Participants (n=211) were analysed for APOE ε genotypes, physiological parameters and health- and diet-related plasma markers. Lifestyle
... oices were determined by a questionnaire. Results: APOE genotypes ε3/ε4 and ε4/ε4 (ε4 group) represented 34.1% of the participants. Genotype ε3/ε3 (ε3 group) frequency was 54.5%. Carriers of ε2 (ε2 group; ε2/ε2, ε2/ε3 and ε2/ε4) represented 11.4%; 1.9 % were of the genotype ε2/ε4. The LDL and total cholesterol levels were lower (P<0.05) in the ε2 carriers than in the ε3 or ε4 groups, while the ε3 and ε4 groups did not differ. Proportions of plasma saturated fatty acids were higher (P<0.01) and omega-6 fatty acids lower (P=0.01) in the ε2 carriers compared with the ε4 group. The ε2 carriers had a higher (P<0.05) percentage of 22:4n-6 and 22:5n-6 and a lower (P<0.05) percentage of 24:5n-3 and 24:6n-3 than individuals without the ε2 allele. Conclusions: The plasma fatty acid profiles in the ε2 group were characterised by higher SFA and lower omega-6 fatty acid proportions. Their lower cholesterol values indicated a lower risk for CVD compared with the ε4 group. A novel finding was that the ε2 carriers had different proportions of 22:4n-6, 22:5n-6, 24:5n-3 and 24:6n-3 than individuals without the ε2 allele. The significance of the differences in fatty acid composition remains to be studied.