Corpus-Based Metonymy Analysis

Katja Markert, Malvina Nissim
2003 Metaphor and Symbol  
In this paper we make the case for corpus-based metonymy analysis and show that many interesting linguistic and statistical questions can only be answered by working with real texts. To facilitate such studies, we present a method for annotating metonymies in domain and genre-independent text. We advocate an annotation scheme that builds on regularities in metonymic usage, that takes underspecification in metonymic reference into account and that is organised hierarchically. We combine previous
more » ... We combine previous metonymy classification proposals with insights from a corpus study to present a fully worked-out annotation scheme for location names, illustrating the above principles. We present several experiments measuring annotation agreement and show that the annotation scheme is reliable and has wide coverage. We also provide a gold standard for annotations of this kind consisting of 2000 annotated occurrences of country names in the British National Corpus. We use the resulting corpus to study metonymy distributions and the factors that influence the choice of literal vs. metonymic readings in real texts.
doi:10.1207/s15327868ms1803_04 fatcat:bk2fjk36y5akva4arquiv7zl2u