Structure and function of the perivascular fluid compartment and vertebral venous plexus: Illumining a novel theory on mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's, cerebral small vessel, and neurodegenerative diseases
Neurobiology of Disease
Blood dynamically and richly supplies the cerebral tissue via microvessels invested in pia matter perforating the cerebral substance. Arteries penetrating the cerebral substance derive an investment from one or two successive layers of pia mater, luminally apposed to the pial-glial basal lamina of the microvasculature and abluminally apposed to a series of aquaporin IV-studded astrocytic end feet constituting the soi-disant glia limitans. The full investment of successive layers forms the
... ly continuous walls of the periarteriolar, pericapillary, and perivenular divisions of the perivascular fluid compartment. The pia matter disappears at the distal periarteriolar division of the perivascular fluid compartment. Plasma from arteriolar blood sequentially transudates into the periarteriolar division of the perivascular fluid compartment and subarachnoid cisterns in precession to trickling into the neural interstitium. Fluid from the neural interstitium successively propagates into the venules through the subarachnoid cisterns and perivenular division of the perivascular fluid compartment. Fluid fluent within the perivascular fluid compartment flows gegen the net direction of arteriovenular flow. Microvessel oscillations at the central tendency of the cerebral vasomotion generate corresponding oscillations of within the surrounding perivascular fluid compartment, interposed betwixt the abluminal surface of the vessels and internal surface of the pia mater. The precise microanatomy of this most fascinating among designable spaces has eluded the efforts of various investigators to interrogate its structure, though most authors non-consensusly concur the investing layers effectively and functionally segregate the perivascular and subarachnoid fluid compartments. Enlargement of the perivascular fluid compartment in a variety of neurological disorders, including senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type and cerebral small vessel disease, may alternately or coordinately constitute a correlative marker of disease severity and a possible cause implicated in the mechanistic pathogenesis of these conditions. Venular pressures modulating oscillatory dynamic flow within the perivascular fluid compartment may similarly contribute to the development of a variety among neurological disorders. An intimate understanding of subtle features typifying microanatomy and microphysiology of the investing structures and spaces of the cerebral microvasculature may powerfully inform mechanistic pathophysiology mediating a variety of neurovascular ischemic, neuroinfectious, neuroautoimmune, and neurodegenerative diseases.