New precise positions in 2013–2019 and a catalog of ground-based astrometric observations of 11 Neptunian satellites (1847–2019) based on Gaia-DR2
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Context. Developing high-precision ephemerides for Neptunian satellites requires not only the continuation of observing campaigns but also the collection and improvement of existing observations. So far, no complete catalogs of observations of Neptunian satellites are available. Aims. We aim to provide new, precise positions, and to compile a catalog including all available ground-based astrometric observations of Neptunian satellites. The observations are tabulated in a single and consistent
... le and consistent format and given in the same timescale, the Terrestrial Time (TT), and reference system, the International Celestial Reference System (ICRS), including necessary changes and corrections. Methods. New CCD observations of Triton and Nereid were made at Lijiang 2.4-m and Yaoan 0.8-m telescopes in 2013–2019, and then reduced based on Gaia-DR2. Furthermore, a catalog called OCNS2019 (Observational Catalog of Neptunian Satellites (2019 version)) was compiled, after recognizing and correcting errors and omissions. Furthermore, in addition to what was considered for the COSS08 catalog for eight main Saturnian satellites, all observed absolute and relative coordinates were converted to the ICRS with corrections for star catalog biases with respect to Gaia-DR2. New debiasing tables for both the modern and old star catalogs, which were previously not provided based on Gaia-DR2, are developed and applied. Treatment of missing positions of comparison bodies in conversions of observed relative coordinates are proposed. Results. OCNS2019 and the new debiasing tables are publicly available online. OCNS2019 includes 24996 observed coordinates of 11 Neptunian satellites obtained over 3741 nights from 1847 to 2019. All observations are given in TT and ICRS. The star catalog biases are removed, which are significant for Nereid and outer satellites. We obtained 880 (5% of total now available) new coordinates for Triton over 41 nights (1% of total observation nights so far), and 790 (14%) for Nereid over 47 nights (10%). The dispersions of these new positions are about 0.″03 for Triton and 0.″06 for Nereid. Conclusions. OCNS2019 should be useful in improving ephemerides for the above-mentioned objects.