Features and heterogeneities in growing network models

Luca Ferretti, Michele Cortelezzi, Bin Yang, Giacomo Marmorini, Ginestra Bianconi
2012 Physical Review E  
Many complex networks from the World-Wide-Web to biological networks are growing taking into account the heterogeneous features of the nodes. The feature of a node might be a discrete quantity such as a classification of a URL document as personal page, thematic website, news, blog, search engine, social network, ect. or the classification of a gene in a functional module. Moreover the feature of a node can be a continuous variable such as the position of a node in the embedding space. In order
more » ... to account for these properties, in this paper we provide a generalization of growing network models with preferential attachment that includes the effect of heterogeneous features of the nodes. The main effect of heterogeneity is the emergence of an "effective fitness" for each class of nodes, determining the rate at which nodes acquire new links. The degree distribution exhibits a multiscaling behaviour analogous to the the fitness model. This property is robust with respect to variations in the model, as long as links are assigned through effective preferential attachment. Beyond the degree distribution, in this paper we give a full characterization of the other relevant properties of the model. We evaluate the clustering coefficient and show that it disappears for large network size, a property shared with the Barab\'asi-Albert model. Negative degree correlations are also present in the studied class of models, along with non-trivial mixing patterns among features. We therefore conclude that both small clustering coefficients and disassortative mixing are outcomes of the preferential attachment mechanism in general growing networks.
doi:10.1103/physreve.85.066110 pmid:23005165 fatcat:hexvjms3znfedkitry7vunurym