Hormone secretion and glucose metabolism in islets of Langerhans of the isolated perfused pancreas from normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats
Journal of Biological Chemistry
The glucose responsiveness of alpha- and beta-cells of normal as well as untreated and insulin-treated streptozotocin diabetic rats was tested in the extracorporeal perfusion system. Also assessed was the possible in vitro effect of added insulin on the glucose sensitivity of islets from untreated diabetic animals. Insulin and glucose responsiveness of the two cell types. The rate of glucose entry islet tissue was estimated, and the effect of glucose on the tissue supply of ATP and lactate and
... TP and lactate and the cyclic 3':5'-AMP level of islets was measured under the above in vitro conditions. It was demonstrated that beta-cells are more accessible to glucose than alpha-cells, that glucose entry into islet cells is not significantly modified by insulin and that glucose had no effect on ATP, lactate and cyclic 3':5'-AMP levels of islet tissue under any of the conditions investigated. High insulin in vitro elevated ATP levels of alpha-cell islets independent of extracellular glucose. Glucose caused insulin release from normal but not from diabetic islets and rapidly and efficiently suppressed stimulated glucagon secretion of the pancreas from normal and insulin treated diabetic rats. Glucose was less effective in inhibiting stimulated glucagon secretion by the pancreas from untreated diabetic rats whether insulin was added to the perfusion media or not. Therefore, profound differences of glucose responsiveness of alpha-cells fail to manifest themselves in alterations of basic parameters of glucose and energy metabolism in contrast to what had been postulated in the literature. It is however, apparent that the glucose responsiveness of alpha-cells is modified by insuling by an as yet undefined mechanism.