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Rates for large-scale vertical transport of air in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) were determined using high-resolution, in situ observations of CO 2 concentrations in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere during the NASA Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4) campaign in August 2007. Upward movement of trace gases in the deep tropics was notably slower in TC4 than during the Costa Rica AURA Validation Experiment (CR-AVE), in January 2006. Transport rates indoi:10.5194/acp-10-6669-2010 fatcat:tjactt6krvh6xcroev5nkpa4ja